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This is a type of vegetative propagation in which plants are grown artificially in a test tube.a small part of a plant is kept on a nutritive medium containing all  the elements for growth. soon the cells of this part divides & form a mass of similar cells. this is called callus. the callus is cut into small pieces and each pieces is put into another nutritive medium where they grow into tiny plantlets. these can now be transplanted into the soil where they will grow into new plants.orchids are propagated by this method.