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Input devices and Output devices are the peripheral devices attached to a computer  CPU.

The computer CPU performs computations.  The data is input or taken in from the input devices in to the main memory (RAM) before the computation and the results of the computation from RAM are stored back on to the output devices.

Input and output devices are handled by the operating system on the computer.  The devices are scanned for presence and operation during the starting up of the OS.  They are shutdown or closed when the OS shuts down.

The only way for a user to give data, speech, text, video inputs to the computer is via the input devices, that the computer OS recognizes.  We have removable, plug and play,  and fixed input devices.

Hard disk, Keyboard, Pen drive, CD ROM drive, Floppy disk drive, DVD, ZIP drive, cartridge tape drive, Joystick, tablet mouse, mouse, optical mouse,  infra red mouse, etc.. are all input devices.

Hard disk:  Stores operating system , user data, programs and applications
Keyboard:  used to input data directly for any application to read it
CDROM/DVD/ZIP /floppy/Cartridge:  These store data files and applications in terms of files.
   These ca n  be read or modified.
Joystick :  this stick is used to control navigation in computer games and in simulation softwares.
Mouse is used to indicate  position, and button clicks are used for activation of links and drop down menus.
Touch screen  : the position and the direction of movement are input through touch screen.
   Other inputs like magnification or reduction too can be input.

The output of the computer is sent by the OS to the output devices through drivers resident in the OS.  The various output devices are floppy devices, DVD, pen drive (external memory device), printer of all types, video monitor (display), tape drive, hard disk etc.

the secondary devices are used for storing files on them.  Printer is used for outputting documents in hard copy.  Monitor is used for displaying text and pictures (graphics). 
There are other output devices too.

The computer is used by us with suitable input and output devices, that are suitable to our convenience and need.

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