Friction has been reduced and hence the energy
loss due to friction by inventing new designs, techniques and materials
over decades and centuries.
1. Coolant liquids are used to reduce
temperature and heat energy loss due to friction. Coolants absorb heat
very quickly and cool down surfaces in contact. They form a smooth, slipping layer between the surfaces.
2. Friction is reduced by applying slippery,
grease, oil, lubricant between the sliding surfaces. So contact between
objects becomes smooth. Glycol based lubricants have very little
3. Sliding frictions is reduced to rolling
friction. This is done by redesigning the moving parts. Parts like
ball bearing and freedom to move in 3 dimensions is applied. They are
made of thermoplastic materials.
4. Surfaces which move relative to each
other are designed to be smooth and clean. Rough surfaces have higher
5. Rust and other oxide deposits on metals
increase friction. So materials are kept protected from rusting by
6. Choose surfaces and materials that have
less friction coefficients. Teflon materials usually have very little
friction. Metal composites of Aluminum, Magnesium, Boron have small friction. Graphite materials have less sliding friction.
7. Coefficient of friction changes with
temperature (at high speeds the temperatures of surfaces increases and
friction increases). So design takes care of this aspect.
8. Many factories or machines use pulleys and
belts wrapped around them. To change the friction and the belt
slipping on rolling pulleys or wheels, the belts are wrapped around the
pulleys multiple times.
9. Dithering (vibration or
oscillation) technique is used where possible.