Civilisations developed when the early farmers began to produce more from land than they actually needed. The ruins of Harrapa were discovered on the banks of Indus river's tributary. Harappa was the first city to be excavated. the city was excavated by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920. the pottery found was red painted with designs in black, called Red and Black Ware. the harrapan civilisation
was spread over nearly 1.3 million Kilo metre square kilometre along the Arabian sea coast and on the Indus river flood plain. town planning is one of the unique features of the Harappan civilization. most of the cities were divided into two parts the Citadel, on a raised ground and the lower town, at a lower height.