Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ; (born 15 October 1931) is an Indian scientist and
administrator who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. Kalam was born and raised
in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, studied physics at St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli, and engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai.
Before his term as President, he worked as an Aerospace engineer with Defence Research and
DevelopmentOrganization (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Kalam is popularly known as
the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology.
pivotal organizational, technical and political role in India's PokhranII nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original
nuclear test by India in 1974.