Chromatography is a process that is used to separate different colors from a dye .now u will be thinking that colors can be obtained  by the process of evaporation also .and the answer is yes it can be obtained but all the colors will be mixed up u can not point this is blue or this is red . the process by which different colors can be separated is only chromatography. examples where chromatography is used are- in blood test,in forensic science,etc.                  
      hope this will help u .     
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What is chromatography?
Chromatography is a technique of seperating two or more dissolved solids which are presented in a solution in very small quantities.There are many types of chromatography but most important is paper chromatography.By using paper chromatography,we can separate two or more different substances are soluble in the same solvent .