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We call that it funny bone(elbow). It isn't really a bone though. What happens is, the bending of the elbow exposes the nerve in the open part of the joint, and if you hit it just right, the nerve gets pinched and that is the cause of the shock and numbness that follows.

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Our hand contain two types of nerve that is radial and ulnar nerve. radial nerve is connected to radial bone and ulnar nerve is associated with ulnar bone. the ulnar nerve passes just below and it is not covered by any tissue. hence any sudden blow to elbow directly strikes ulnar nerve and that result in shock like feeling.
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