A scientific research has five parts: problem, observation, hypothesis, experiment, theory and application. The problems we face all the time can be solved using this. For example, say the torch stops working.
The torch not working is the problem.
What you have to do is find about how it works and do a sum up. You will realize that a torch works on a set of cells that provide electrical energy to a bulb that converts it into heat and light energy. What you have just done is observation.
Now think of something that may be what is wrong. Some of these are: (1) Batteries are run out. (2) Bulb is fused. (3) Switch is blown. (4) Wires are damaged.
Now you have thought of some hypothesizes.
Now you've got to check one of this is true. You have just done an experiment.
Now you realize one of those hypothesizes is true. That hypothesis becomes a theory.
Now possibly you try to attribute it to another field (not all the time). You have just done an application.

Hope it helps :)

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