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When water is pumped through a water tube, its energy/time = power, is a constant along the pipe.  The amount of water flowing across a cross section per unit time is a constant.  That quantity is given by :  Cross section Area * velocity. 
     ie., V / T = A * v

At the end of the pipes of a fountain the tubes become narrow.  So the velocity increases drastically, when water comes out.  So water ejects like a jet at an angle to the horizontal.  So water jet goes to great heights in a parabolic path due to gravity acting downwards.
Also, the power is a constant.      Power = pressure * V / T
         The pressure of water at the exit of the pipe is very high.

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