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   We use the Kirchoff's voltage law and current law.

   We have that the sum of potential differences across all circuital elements in a closed circuit is 0.  At each junction the sum of the currents flowing in is equal to the sum of the currents flowing out.

   see diagram.

    E - R1 * i - i1 * R2 - R4 * i  = 0
    R2 i1  -  R3 * i2  = 0 
      i - i1 - i2 = 0

we have 3 equations and 3 variables  i, i1, i2. 
 After solving for them, the voltages across resistors can be calculated as products of resistances and currents.

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