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a. One of the most difficult challenges confronting Independent India is poverty which continues to hamper the progress of our country.

b. Due to income disparities poor are not able to mange their basic necessities of life and become victims of poverty.

c. According to the Government of India, the definition of poverty is linked to the expenditure required by an average household to meet a specified minimum nutrition in terms of calories and urban poverty in particular is denoted by an intake of 2100 calories per capita per day. Rural poverty is denoted by an intake of 2400 calorie per day.

d. The consumption expenditure is set at Rs 816 per person per month in the rural areas and Rs 1,000 per person per month in the urban areas. Thus, anybody, whose expenditure is less than the above figures would be termed as poor .

e. This determines the poverty line in India.

f. It is in this context, States like Bihar, Orissa have been amongst the poorest states in India. They have more than 40% of population living below poverty line

g. Worst effected would include casual labourers in urban areas, landless farmers in rural areas with most of the them are living under abysmally low conditions, dying of hunger , of starvation .

h. The most vulnerable group in rural areas the schedule caste in rural households are the worst victims .

i. There are many factors which have led to poverty in India like Rapid increase in the population, Failure on part of the agricultural sector to generate employment for farm labourers. Small and landless farmers are the worst victims and hardly have any prospect for growth, regional disparities .

j. Poverty ridden families are not able to give education , health, proper sanitation to their families.

k. They are rather trapped in the vicious circle of poverty.