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2015-11-07T09:47:21+05:30

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Dipole moment is the product of change and the distance between them. A dipole is formed by equal charge separation. It is a vector quantity. 
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in the product q * 2 a... 2a is the displacement from -q to +q. Its direction is from -q to q. So it is a vector... That is why the dipole moment is a vector.
sorry sir,i forget
edit the answer now. click on edit link.
2015-11-07T10:39:23+05:30

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Dipole is a system of consisting two equal & opposite charges , & Dipole moment is nothing but the product of charge(since they are equal in magnitude) & the distance between them .


Dipole moment can be calculated as , It is represented by P(vector) i.e.

P(vector) = q × 2l

where , 2l is the distance between them , Direction of dipole is from -ve to +ve
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