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The word sustainable means ability to be support. 
sustainable development means development without harming our surroundings that is our environment.
India when it got independence it firstly aimed towards the development of the nation without observing what was happening in their nation. once after reaching certain stage then we realized that we were harming our environment, that is also by when the heat around was in its peeks. after that only we started our sustainable development.
sustainable development helps us towards development of the nation alongside with conserving the naturally available resources.