Coordinate Geometry is used in many stages.
It helps to specify the exact location of some point with relation to a specific point (Origin).
2-dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry is used for specifying the location of any place on earth using Latitudes and Longtitudes.
3-dimensional Co-ordinate Geometry is used to specify location of points in space, or any other 3-D object.
For e.g. I can say that a balloon is at a height of 1 m from the floor of my room, 2.5m from the nearest wall, and 3 m from the wall adjacent to the nearest wall.
Co-ordinate Geometry is also used for development of research of 4-D Space,
where the location of a point is determined by 4 co-ordinates (unlike the 2 we use on paper).