The original text of the Preamble and artwork of Beohar Rammanohar Sinha, before the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It is a living document, the permanent instrument which makes the government system work. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world.[Note 1] Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is regarded as the chief architect of the Indian Constitution, but it was the Constituent Assembly that worked under Dr Ambedkar and his team that drafted the final copy of the Indian Constitution
Jawaharlal Nehru signing the Constitution
The constitution of India imparts constitutional supremacy and notparliamentary supremacy as it is not created by the Parliament but created by a constituent assembly and adopted by its people with a declaration in the preamble to the constitution. Parliament cannotoverride the constitution.
The Constitution was adopted by theConstituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date of 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporaryRepublic of India and it replaced theGovernment of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document. To ensure constitutional autochthony, the framers of constitution repealed the prior Acts of the British Parliament via the Article 395 of the constitution. India celebrates the coming into force of the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day.
The Constitution declares India a sovereign,socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, andliberty, and endeavors to promote fraternityamong them.
Dr. Ambedkar is hailed as the prime architect of the Indian Constitution
The major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1857 to 1947. When the Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950, it repealed the Indian Independence Act. India ceased to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign democratic republic.
Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392, 393 and 394 came into force on 26 Nov 1949 and remaining articles on 26 Jan 1950.