Answers

2015-12-02T17:25:08+05:30

Special Education or special needs education refers to the education of physically or mentally challenged students whose learning needs cannot be met by a standard school curriculum. Special instructional methodology, techniques, materials are provided. But because is education, it helps students reach a superior level of personal self-sufficiency Thus, this report relies on the projected figures made by surveys. Estimations show that about 40 million children in India, from the age of 4-16 years old, are disabled. India measures disability in five categories: hearing, sight, speech, locomotors and metal- excluding others such as autism. Taking this measure into account, surveys rely that 35 million children are physically challenged and 5 million are mentally ones. These ones range from special schools to Inclusive education. Special Schools are apart from the General Education System. In early times, special schools in India were a voluntary program. By 1950s, there were around 10 special schools in India. IThirty years later, in the 1990s, there was an incredible growth. Around 1100 special schools were created and spread all around the country. This growth was mainly due to the creation of Acts (e.g. Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation, 1995), polices and the availability of more number of professionals trained to teach in special schools. It is hard to estimate the exact number as some NGOs who created such schools haven't been included in directories. Moreover, most of them are register as Societies or Trust. Therefore, there is no recognition of such special schools due to poor documentation. Moreover, in the past years, much parent organization in India established special schools for children with intellectual disabilities in different parts of the country- this reflects the involvement of parents. Latest surveys estimate that there are more than 3000 special schools in India but only few of them, those in urban areas, have the needed resources, or trained teachers. Now, where is the money for special schools in rural areas?. Until the 1970s, the policy encouraged segregation. It was believed by educators that children with intellectual and physical disabilities couldn't take part in activities of common schools because they were "different". Over the time, this policy of segregation was dissolute. They started to believe that if the child was ready to make a shift, this one should be transferred to a general school. And here is when the idea of inclusive education was introduced. In the year 1974, the government implemented the first program "Integrated Education for Disabled Children" (IEDC). But the government didn't work alone. Some NGOs partner and participated in the implementation of it (e.g. SYSS). These provided the training for teachers to practise inclusion, ensure that children with disabilities enrol in common schools and provided with the resources and materials needed. Inclusive Education is a part of the General Education System. The program aimed to integrate the children with disabilities in the general schools and so in the community. By doing this, they create an inclusive culture. Disabled children will be now ready for a normal development and able to face life with self-confidence. There are two kinds of Inclusive Education: part time and full time. Part time education refers to disable students attending general classes for less than half a day. They generally attend the less difficult subjects with children without disabilities and the others with students who are facing similar disabilities. Full time education refers to disable students attending general classes along with students without special needs. These students are more likely to have mild disabilities. I conclude by saying that in a country so big like India, which the world's second largest population (1.22 billion) and with the second largest education system, there is large number of children with disabilities and a big number of them who are out of school. And the major responsibility of any government is to provide basic education. This one is a powerful instrument of social change. There is definitely a strong link between poverty and disability in the country. Most of the people with disabilities are seen as part of a 'fifth castle'-below all others- reinforcing their marginalisation from society. As a result these are discouraged to go to school and end up being vagabonds. But what is even sadder is that in some cases families make their children disable somehow by cutting arms, legs, others so that they can beg for money in the streets. TDespite the efforts of the NGOs and the government, it is clear that the national objective "Education for all" has not being achieved yet. Clear examples are the private schools in some urban areas of India, which have voluntarily implemented special education.

3 5 3
  • Qba
  • Administrator
2015-12-03T19:43:08+05:30

This Is a Certified Answer

×
Certified answers contain reliable, trustworthy information vouched for by a hand-picked team of experts. Brainly has millions of high quality answers, all of them carefully moderated by our most trusted community members, but certified answers are the finest of the finest.
           India's Disability Act of 1995 provides various facilities for both children and adults with disabilities in India. Beneath the Disabilities Act of India, kids with disabilities have the right to free education till they reach the age of eighteen in schools which can be integrated, or in 'specific,' schools. Kids with disabilities possess the restructuring of program and modifications in the examination system, removal of architectural barriers, as well as the right to suitable transportation. Uniforms scholarships, books, and teaching materials are supplied to children with disabilities for free in India.  

           Kids with handicaps in India have use of special schools that are equipped with vocational training facilities, and non-formal instruction. India provides training institutions for teachers as a way to determine manpower. Parents of children with handicaps in the country can move to a suitable court for the redress of grievances in reference to their own kids with impairments.  

           In India every, 'panchayat,' is provided funding so that you can create roads, schools, and public ramps for individuals with handicaps by the authorities.  

           Three-percentage of government jobs in India are allowed for people with disabilities, and the Disability Act in India includes affirmative action for people with impairments. What this means is the fact that the allotment of land in India is made to individuals with handicaps for housing, recreation centers, special schools, factories and company. It also means that individuals with disabilities have, 'appliances,' and, 'aids,' made available to them.  

           People with disabilities in the nation of India who are seeking advice in regards to the facilities offered to them have to go to the Office of the Commissioner.  

           Should a school refuse entrance to a kid with a disability, or if your ramp or other means of access is lacking, parents possess the option of choosing the matter up with all the Handicaps Commissioner for redress.  

           India has ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Individuals with Disabilities; the country has done to protect the rights of people with handicaps in compliance with all the Convention.    

           The nation of India now has four different laws that pertain to individuals with impairments. These laws contain:  

            → The Mental Health Act of 1987  
            → The Persons with Disabilities Act  
            → The Rehabilitation Council of India Act  
            → The National Trust for Welfare of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy, Autism, Mental Retardation, and Multiple Disabilities Act of 1999  

           The vast majority of the laws in India related to people with disabilities is founded on the medical model of disability; it adopts a welfare attitude, looking at physical impairments of individuals and tagging them as, 'incapacity.' The UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities defines, 'handicap,' as an evolving concept. The Convention believes that, 'handicap,' results from the interaction of disabilities with various obstacles which hinder active and full engagement in society.  
 
           The medical model of disability, a centuries-old norm, is one that sought, 'corrections,' for individuals with handicaps. 'Accessibility,' is not just confined to constructing buildings that have ramps, or building roads - it means ensuring that individuals with impairments have use of transportation systems, indications which can be both sound and Braille, sports auditoriums, public facilities, hospitals, malls, practices, along with other facilities
8 4 8