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Basic sentence patterns:
1. S-V (Subject -Verb)
She is sleeping.

2. S-V-O (Subject -Verb -Object)
We played tennis.

3. S-V-IO-DO (Subject -Verb -Indirect Object -Direct Object)
My friend gave me a Christmas gift.

4. S-V-O-M (Subject -Verb -Object -Modifier)
James walked to school hurriedly.

5. S-V-C (Subject -Verb -Complement)
I am a writer. 

These are the basic sentence patterns for simple sentences. However, these are important in parsing complicated sentences. For example,

We went to the park even though it was raining hard.
We- Subject
Went- Verb
to the park- Prepositional Phrase/Modifier
Even though- Conjunction
it- Subject
was raining- Verb
hard- Adverb/Modifier

Therefore, the sentence is a combination of S-V-M and S-V-M.