Hormones are body's chemical messengers that are secreted directly into the bloodstream. They travel in the bloodstream to tissues or organs. They affect various processes like growth, metabolism, sexual functions, reproductions and mood of an individual. Hormones are secreted by the endocrine glands like pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal glands etc.
Different hormones in human body are:
The adrenal glands are located at the top of each kidney. They produce hormones that help the body control blood sugar, burn protein and fat, react to stressors like a major illness or injury, and regulate blood pressure. They also produce small amounts of sex hormones called androgens, among other hormones.
It is secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones play vital roles in regulating the body’s metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and maintenance of bones.
3. Growth hormone (GH)
It is secreted by the pituitary gland and is involved in the growth and development of the human body. Over secretion of GH results in abnormal growth of the body known as gigantism whereas deficiency of GH results in dwarfism. In adults, it does not cause growth but it helps to maintain normal body structure and metabolism, including helping to keep blood glucose levels within set levels.
4. Testosterone and oestrogen
The pituitary gland also secretes and regulates sex hormones like testosterone and oestrogen. These are also known as male sex hormones and female sex hormones respectively.Testosterone is responsible for the growth and development of male secondary sexual characters.Oestrogen is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characters in females.
The pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin. It regulates the blood sugar level in the human body. It controls how the body uses carbohydrates and fat found in food.It increases the permeability of the cell membrane for glucose and accelerates the passage of glucose into the cells from the bloodstream.