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It is an abnormal weather pattern that is caused by the warming of pacific ocean , near the equator ,of the coast of south america. this occurs when normal trade winds weaken (or even reverse) which lets the warm water that is usually found in the western pacific flow instead towards the east.
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It is an irregularly occuring of climatic changes affecting the equatorial paccific ocean and beyond every five is caused due to the variations in the sea surface temparatures.the warming phase is known as el nino and cooling phase is known as la nina .it is accompanied by high air surface  pressure in the tropical western pacific.