This theme chapter of Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries 2002 offers a broad overview of demographic and human resource trends in the Asia and Pacific Region and considers some possible policy implications these developments have for developing countries in the region. Infant and child mortality rates have declined considerably and many millions can look forward to longer and healthier lives. School enrollment and levels of literacy continue to rise, raising the productivity of workers and enhancing the effectiveness of civil society. Success in the region, however, is far from even. Many millions of people live in abject poverty, suffer unacceptably high levels of mortality, and face a future of little hope. One of the region's major challenges is to improve the lives of the many millions who are searching for basic human dignity. And, the changes in population are creating both challenges and opportunities for accelerated social and economic development.