Facing the inadequacies in the implementation of social justice provisions due to non-justiciability of Directive Principles, commentators have also pointed out that our constitution is embattled and imperilled because we have failed to impregnate our social and political process with patriotic zeal and fulfill the aspirations.
To overcome this reality Article 51-A and Part IV-A were introduced by 42nd amendment in 1976.
Part IV-A was added by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976. It encompasses Part IV, Article 51A enumerating Ten Fundamental Duties of the Citizens of India.
Under this Article, it shall be the duty of every citizen of India-
(i) To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and the National Anthem;
(ii) To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(iii) To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(iv) To defend the country and receive national services;
(v) To promote the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India;
(vi) To preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
(vii) To protect and improve the natural environment;
(viii) To develop the scientific temper and spirit of inquiry;
(ix) To safeguard public property;
(x) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.
Of course, there is no provision in the Constitution for direct enforcement of any of these Duties nor for any sanction to prevent their violation.
But it may be expected that in determining the Constitutionality of any law, if a Court finds that it seeks to give effect to any of these duties, it may consider such law to ‘be reasonable’ in relation to Article 14 or 19, and thus save such law from unconstitutionality.