The Constitution of India has granted some fundamental rights to her Citizens. there are seven in number, such as; (1) right to equality, (2) right to freedom, (3) right against exploitation, (4) right to freedom of religion, (5) cultural and education rights, (6) right to property and (7) right to constitutional remedies.

Right to equality: It guarantees equality of opportunity to all in public employments, without discrimination of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

Right to freedom: It guarantees freedom of speech, peaceful assembly, formation of associations and unions, free movement in India, freedom of inhabitation anywhere in India, freedom of acquiring, holding and disposing of properties and freedom of practicing any trade or profession.

Right against exploitation: Forced labour and traffic in human beings are prohibited.

Right of freedom of religion: Freedom of religion is guaranteed subject to provisions for health, morality, peace and order.

Cultural and educational rights: Linguistic, cultural and religious interests of the minorities are protected. They an establish and administer their educational institutions.

Right to property: No person can be unlawfully deprived of this movable and immovable property.

Right to constitutional remedies: Any citizen can move the Supreme Court of India for the enforcement of his fundamental rights.

These rights are guaranteed by the Indian constitution. Any act of the Legislature which affects these fundamental rights can be challenged in a Court of Law.


A citizen should have duties and responsibilities for his country. He should try to do the public good. He should control his conduct on the light of the good of his country. He should exercise his rights with proper judgment and obey the law of road and the like. He should try to build himself to do the best service for the country. He should have patriotism and fellow-feeling. As a citizen, he should know his responsibility to discharge his duties.


It is a matter of regret that most of the Indian citizens are neglectful of their duties to India. However, it is hoped, our student community will do their duties to the country, while enjoying the rights, guaranteed by the Constitution.
Fundamental Rights are an indispensable part of our Constitution. Twenty-four articles are enjoined with these Fundamental Rights. Parliament can amend Fundamental Rights by a special procedure.

Fundamental Rights are only for Indian citizens. No alien is permitted to enjoy these rights except right to life, liberty and personal property. 

Fundamental Rights are not absolute. Therefore within some reasonable restrictions citizens can enjoy them. Fundamental Rights without prescribed conditions may disrupt public order.

Fundamental Rights are suspend able during the time of emergency and rights of the citizen are curtailed temporarily except right to life and personal liberty (article-20-21) 

Fundamental Rights are justifiable also. A citizen can go to the court for enforcement of his Fundamental Rights if some one violates them. Under Article 32 and Article 226 of the Indian Constitution, a citizen can approach the Supreme Court and High Court respectively in this regard.
Fundamental Rights are amendable also. Parliament can amend these rights by a special procedure.

Some Fundamental Rights are positive while some others are negative in nature. 

Fundamental Rights aim at restoring collective interest along with individual interest. 

Fundamental Rights are superior to ordinary law of the land. They are conferred a special sanctity.

Some Fundamental Rights are limited to citizens only, such as freedom of speech, assembly, and cultural and educational rights, but other rights like equality before the law, religious freedom etc are available to both citizens and aliens

Some provisions of Chapter-III of the Indian Constitution are of the nature of prohibitions and place Constitutional limitations on the authority of the state. For instance, no authority of the state can deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws.

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