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Vernier caliper's is an instrument used to measure the length ,depth ,diameter of different objects up to to 2 decimal accuracy. 
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We know that we use scale for measuring small distances like cm and tape for measuring metre. But we dont know how accurate is the measured value. We will get more accuracy when we measure with metre scale than cm scale. Least count(least measured value) of the metre scale is 10 raised to -3 metre. Now let me enter vernier caliperse, it has two scale- main scale and vernier scale. It looks like vernier scale on the main scale(it is fixed thus). Vernier scale is small when compared to main scale and it can be moved by adjusting screw there. The least count of vernier scale can be measured through two methods. But both reaches to the answer 10 raised to -4metre which is more accurate than metre scale.