Regulation of regulated distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or the artificial limitation of demand. Rationing controls the size of the ration, which is one in the allotted part of the resources allocated on a specific date or at a specific point in time.
Rationing is often done to keep the price below equilibrium (market clearing) the value determined in the process of supply and demand in unlimited market. Thus, rationing can supplement price controls rationing in a sample price increases have occurred in the various countries where there was rationing of gasoline during the energy crisis of 1973.
The reason for setting a price lower than it would have been a clear market may be, the lack of which would drive the market price is very high. High prices, especially in case of need, are undesirable in relation to those who cannot afford them. Traditionalist economists argue, however, that high prices Act to reduce waste of the scarce resource, and also provides an incentive to produce more.
Rationing using food stamps only one kind of non-price rationing. For example, scarce products can be normalized using queues. This is seen, for example, in amusement parks, where one pays the price to get in and then do not need to pay any price to go on the rides. In addition, in the absence of road tolls, road access is rationed in first come, first-served queue process, leading to congestion.
Authorities that impose rationing often have to deal with the normalized products, unlawfully sold on the black market.
Rationing was instituted during wartime for civilians. For example, each person may be given "coupons" allows him or her to buy a certain amount of product each month. Rationing often includes food and other necessities, for which there is a shortage, including materials needed for the war, such as rubber tires, leather shoes, garments, gasoline.
Can also be Rationing food and water needed in the event of an emergency such as a natural disaster or terrorist attack. Federal Agency for emergency management (FEMA) has developed recommendations for civilians on rationing food and water supplies when replacements are not available. In accordance with the standards of the FEMA, everyone should have at least one litre of water a day, and more for children, nursing mothers, and ill.
The military siege, often led to shortages of food and other essential supplies. Under such circumstances, human resources for rations often determined on the basis of age, sex, race or social status. During the siege of Lucknow (part of the Indian rebellion of 1857), the woman received three quarters of the human diet and children received only half:. 71 during the siege of Ladysmith in the early stages of the Boer War in 1900 white adults had received the same rations as soldiers, and the children received two times less. Food rations for Indian people and blacks were significantly lower:. 266-272
The first modern system of rationing was brought in during the first world war. In Germany, suffering from the effects of the British blockade, the card system was introduced in 1914, and has steadily expanded over the following years, as the situation deteriorated. Although the United Kingdom did not suffer from food shortages, and sea routes were kept open for food imports, panic buying by the end of the war has prompted rationing first sugar and meat. It is, as they say, in most parts of the country, health benefit through alignment of consumption need of the candy '.To help the requirements, diet books were introduced July 15, 1918, butter, margarine, lard, meat, and sugar. During the war, the average consumption of calories has declined only three per cent, but protein intake by six percent. Food rationing introduced in Poland after the second world war, and the ration stamps were not in use until the end of the Polish-Soviet war.
The second world war
Rationing was common during World War II. Ration stamps were used frequently. These were redeemable stamps or coupons, and each family has been given a certain amount of each kind of stamp, depending on family size, ages of children and income. the British Ministry of food refined the process of normalization in the early 1940 's, to ensure that the population does not go hungry when food imports were severely restricted and local production is limited due to the large number of people fighting the war.
Rationing on a scientific basis was first Elsie Widdowson ' and Robert Makkans at the Department of experimental medicine, Cambridge University