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2016-01-14T14:25:32+05:30
Each shell is subdivided into subshells, which are made up of orbitals, each of which has electrons with different angular momentum. Each orbital in a shell has a characteristic shape, and is named by a letter. They are: spd, and f. In a one-electron atom (e.g. H, He+, Li+, etc.) the energy of each orbital within a particular shell is identical. However, when there are multiple electrons, they interact and split the orbitals into slightly different energies. Within any particular shell, the energy of the orbitals depend on the angular momentum of orbitals s, p, d, and f in order of lowest to highest energy. No two orbitals have the same energy level.The simplest orbital in the atom is the 1s orbital. It has no radial or angular nodes: the 1s orbital is simply a sphere of electron density. A node is a point where the electron probability is zero. As with all orbitals the number of radial nodes increases with the principle quantum number (i.e. the 2s orbital has one radial node, the 3s has two etc.). Because the angular momentum quantum number is 0, there is only one choice for the magnetic quantum number - there is only one s orbital per shell. The s orbital can hold two electrons, as long as they have different spin quantum numbers.
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