India’s environmental problems are due to the negative effects of the process of development that is poverty and underdevelopment. Poorly planned development projects cause damage to the environment, associated with plans for rapid economic growth and development. The second group is related with the impact on health, land, soils, water, forests, wildlife as a result of poverty.Environment is the surrounding in which living and non-living beings interact and interchange nutrients and energy.Thus environment has two main components. The Biotic component which include all the living beings virus, bacteria, vegetation etc.The Abiotic component includes soil, water, rock, relief of a region. Both these components influence each other in a huge way.In environment there is a balance among various species of plants and animals and balance between living and non-living.Man through his tools has caused depletion of biodiversity, change in climatic pattern thus leading to environmental degradation.Thus awareness about environment holds great significance for its preservation which is vital for our life and the posterity.
The greatest challenge is the rapid growth of population. Population, poverty and environment are inter-related. The nexus between poverty and environmental degradation is a major issue as vast majority of people depends on the natural resources of country for their basic needs. About 40 per cent are below poverty line.The environmental degration has adversely affected the poor who depend upon natural resources. Henceforth, both poverty and environmental degradation are two facets of same challenge and it is widely recognised that population growth is a function of poverty.The mountainous terrains of the Himalayas and North East States are rapidly losing their forests and trees, which in turn enhances the removal of top soils and results in landslides and floods.India has a rich flora. The Botanical Survey of India has reported nearly 49000 species of plants after surveying about 70 per cent of India’s geographical area. But due to deforestation about 1336 plant species are considered as endangered. The main causes for loss of flora and fauna are pollution, over exploitation, habitat destruction & toxic substances in water, floods, cyclones etc.