India is one of the very few countries in the World, which has a proud history of holding Census after every ten years. The Indian Census has a very long history behind it. The earliest literature ‘Rig Veda’ reveals that some kind of Population count was maintained during 800-600 BC. Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written around 321-296 BC, laid stress on Census taking as a measure of State policy for purpose of taxation. During the regime of Mughal king Akbar the Great, the administrative report ‘Ain-eAkbari’ included comprehensive data pertaining to population, industry, wealth and many other characteristics.