India is one of the very few countries in the World, which has a proud history
of holding Census after every ten years. The Indian Census has a very long history
behind it. The earliest literature ‘Rig Veda’ reveals that some kind of Population count
was maintained during 800-600 BC. Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written around 321-296
BC, laid stress on Census taking as a measure of State policy for purpose of taxation.
During the regime of Mughal king Akbar the Great, the administrative report ‘Ain-eAkbari’
included comprehensive data pertaining to population, industry, wealth and
many other characteristics.