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I explain it with an example:
441 in prime factorisation method:

Step I: write the prime factorisation of 441
441= 3×3×7×7
Step II: From each pair of equal factors occuring in the prime factorisation, take one of the factors and write the product of these factors. The product so obtained is:
Thus, √441=√(3×3)×(7×7) = 3×7=21
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A prime number can be divided evenly only by 1 or itself .And it must be a whole number greater than 1.
some prime numbers are 2,3,5,7,11,13,17............................
prime factorization is find which prime numbers multiply together to make the orginal number.
2 5 2