'Lapse rate' refers to the steady drop in temperature with the rise in altitude (something like 1C per 160m rise in height). This explains why places of higher altitude are often cooler than those at lower altitude.
Prevailing winds often affect the temperature of a place. For example, 'loo' is a local wind that blows in North India and can raise it's surrounding temperatures to nearly 50 C, hot enough to cause heat strokes. Another example can be taken of Sea breezes, which cool down coastal areas.
Ocean currents such as the 'El Nino' (which blows off the coast of Peru during December) can warm their surrounding oceans, which adversely affects the winds blowing over the sea. In India, it affects the Monsoon Winds in the Indian Ocean and causes a weak drought like condition.