Answers

2016-02-03T20:26:57+05:30
Milk : water = 27:7
85kg = 27x + 7x
85 = 34x
x = 85/34
x = 2.5 
milk = 27x = 27*2.5 =67.5kg
water = 7x =  7*2.5 = 17.5kg
now x = 2.5 kg
2x = 5 kg 
add 2x to water 
7x + 2x = 9x 
now the ratio of milk and water is 27:9 = 3:1
so 5 kg of water is required
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2016-02-03T20:38:13+05:30
Milk:water=27:7
total ratio=27+7=34
milk in 85kg of the mixture=27*85/34
=>27*2.5
=>67.5
.'. weight of water in 85kg of the mixture=85-67.5
=>17.5
.'. new ratio=3:1
x=weight of water to be added to get the mixture ratio as 3:1
.'.67.5:17.5+x::3:1
cross multiplying 
67.5*1=(17.5+x)*3
67.5=52.5+3x
67.5-52.5=3x
15=3x
5=x
.'. 5kg of water must be added to make milk:water ratio=3:1

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