Factoring is like taking a number apart. It means to express a number as the product of its factors. Factors are either composite numbers or prime numbers (except that 0 and 1 are neither prime nor composite). The number 12 is a multiple of 3, because it can be divided evenly by 3In mathematics, factorization (also factorisation in some forms of British English) or factoring is the decomposition of an object (for example, a number, a polynomial, or a matrix) into a product of other objects, or factors, which when multiplied together give the original.