Industrialisation (in British English) or industrialization (in American English) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one. It is a part of a wider modernisation process, where social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large-scale energy and metallurgy production. It is the extensive organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing. Industrialisation also introduces a form of philosophical change where people obtain a different attitude towards their perception of nature, and a sociological process of ubiquitous rationalisation.
There is considerable literature on the factors facilitating industrial modernisation and enterprise development.
Key positive factors identified by researchers have ranged from
favourable politico-legal environments for industry and commerce,
through abundant natural resources of various kinds, to plentiful supplies of relatively low-cost, skilled and adaptable labour.
As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and
services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to
industrial investment and economic growth.
The first country to industrialise was the United Kingdom during the Industrial Revolution, commencing in the 18th century.
By the end of the 20th century, East Asia had become one of the most recently industrialised regions of the world.