Demineralization occurs at pH levels lower than 5.5 from a scale of 14. pH levels lower than 7 are acidic and pH levels higher than 7 are alkaline. It is found that when sugar is introduced, cavity causing bacteria can utilize it and bring the saliva to very acidic levels in as little as 30 minutes. During demineralization, crucial molecules are drawn out of the enamel, thus weakening its structure.