How were unwilling cultivators made to cultivate opium in Colonial India?
(i) Unwilling cultivators were made to produce opium through a system of advances. These loans tied the peasant to the headmen and through him to the government.
(ii) By giving advances the cultivator, was forced to grow opium on a specified area of land. The farmers were bound to hand over his produce to the government agents and accept the low price offered.
(iii) He had no option of planting the field with a crop of his choice or selling his product to anyone but the government agent.
(iv) The cultivator also had no choice but to accept the low price offered for the practice.