During the nineteenth century, the different phases of Indian life were permeated with the spirit of a renaissance and a great awakening. The people of India got conscious of humiliation they had to face at the hands of a handful of traders hailing from a land 6,000 miles away from India. Hence they were induced to strive for redemption of India from the state of all round degradation.
The spirit of revival not only affected society, religion and literature, but also Indian life. The earlier renaissance of the 17th century could not evolve our national movement embracing the whole of India. The Marathas and Rajput’s ceased to make history after 1818 and the belated sprouting of the Sikhs could not be of any national use after 1839. “The last poor fancies of political revival round the phantoms of the Peshwa or the Padshah perished in 1858…the frustrated urge of Indian nationalism sought to realize itself in a novel way, turning away from the barren political results of the earlier renaissance. The people could no longer bear the strain of the economic drain, political suppression and highly shameful intimidation.