See, As i know is that they came as traders in india, but empror aurangzeb was very happy at them at them. So He granted them land as gifts, soon they got so much of land and wealth that they took control over the Mughal kingdom and ruled for the next 200 years.
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Bengal in the 18th Century was considered the richest of all Indian provinces. This prosperous & fertile land attracted traders from European countries (East India Company).
Trading companies from Holland, France & England came an established trading centres in Bengal. 
Farrukhsiyar, Mughal emperor ordered a farman to the British to trade duty free without paying any taxes. This angered Siraj-ud-daulah and on coming to power he ordered the British to pay taxes. This angered the British & they waged the Battle of Plassey against him. Then he captured the British , the British fought over & took over him & signed the Treaty of Alinagar in which it was stated that the British would trade freely without paying any taxes.
And in this way they established monopoly over in Bengal & then expanded to other states of India.
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