panchayats have been in existence in India since times immemorial, in post-Independence India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, most of the rural development and community development projects have been sought to be executed through panchayats. In the federal Indian polity, different states had different laws governing the powers of the gram panchayat and sarpanches. In many states, elections were not held for decades and instead of the elected sarpanches, the gram panchayats were run by bureaucratically appointed administrators. However, with the passage of 73rd and 74th in 1992, a number of safeguards have been built in, including those pertaining to regular elections. However, even the constitutionally mandated devolution of the functions of 29 core subjects remains a distant dream in most states of India. "Power of people"remains more of a rhetorical slogan than an actual practice.Nowadays, there are instances of women also being elected to post of sarpanch and they are called sarpanchni. This follows legislative reform in which reservation or minimum quotas are set for sarpanch positions to be held by females. Around one - eighth of the seats are reserved for the female contestants.