1. Population Explosion : The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe

2. Mass Migration : In most of the European countries the supply of workers exceeded the demand. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.

3. Industrialisation and it's impact on local producers : Small producers in towns often faced with stiff competition from import of cheap machine made good from England.

4. High food prices : In those regions of Europe, where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations. The rise of food prices or a bad harvest led to the widespread revolts in town and countries
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