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The earliest authenticated human remains in South
Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly
contemporaneous Mesolithic rock art sites have been
found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent,
including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya
Pradesh. Around 7000 BCE, the first known Neolithic
settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh
and other sites in western Pakistan. These gradually
developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first
urban culture in South Asia which flourished during
2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan and western India.
Centred on cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa,
Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms
of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in
crafts production and wideranging trade. During the
period 2000–500 BCE, in terms of culture, many
regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the
Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. The Vedas, the oldest
scriptures of Hinduism, were composed during this
period, and historians have analysed these to posit a
Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper
Gangetic Plain. Most historians also consider this
period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-
Aryan migration into the subcontinent. On the Deccan
Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period
suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political
organisation. In southern India, a progression to
sedentary life is indicated by the large number of
megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well
as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and
craft traditions. The Sangam literature of the Tamil
language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE,
the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras,
the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded
extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and
South-East Asia. In North India, Hinduism asserted
patriarchal control within the family, leading to
increased subordination of women. By the 4th and 5th
centuries, the Gupta Empire had created in the greater
Ganges Plain a complex system of administration and
taxation that became a model for later Indian
kingdoms. Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism
based on devotion rather than the management of
ritual began to assert itself. The renewal was reflected
in a flowering of sculpture and architecture, which
found patrons among an urban elite. Classical Sanskrit
literature flowered as well, and Indian science,
astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made
significant advances

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Answers

2016-02-22T11:06:47+05:30
The earliest authenticated human remains in South
Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. t the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya
Pradesh. Around 7000 BCE, the first known Neolithic
settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh
and other sites in western Pakistan. These gradually
developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first
urban culture in South Asia which flourished during
2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan and western India.
Centred on cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa,
Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms
of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in
crafts production and wideranging trade. kingdoms. Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism
based on devotion rather than the management of
ritual began to assert itself. The renewal was reflected
in a flowering of sculpture and architecture, which
found patrons among an urban elite. Classical Sanskrit
literature flowered as well, and Indian science,
astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made
significant advances

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