Nearlycontemporaneous Mesolithic rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indiansubcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. Around 7000 BCE,the first known Neolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other sitesin western Pakistan. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urbanculture in South Asia which flourished during 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan and westernIndia. Centred on cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relyingon varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and widerangingtrade.During the period 2000–500 BCE, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinenttransitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures ofHinduism, were composed during this period, and historians have analysed these to posita Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. Most historians also considerthis period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent.
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