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Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in some areas. Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils influence population in hilly areas. Flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall have led a large number of people to settle in the densely populated Northern Plains.
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My friends according to 10 text book answer for this question is
distribution of rainfall,temparature,soil,irrigation,minerals,powerresorces,industrial development,transport facilities,trade and commerce defence etc