Universities of Padua and Bologna had been centers of legal studies from the 11th centuries. Francesco Petrarch(1304 - 78) represent this change. To Petrarch antiquity was a distinctive civilization which could be best understood through the actual words of the ancients Greeks and Romans. He stressed the importance of a close reading of ancient authors. This education programme implied that there was much to be learnt which religious teachers alone could not give. This was the culture which historians in the 19th century were to label 'humanism'. These teaching caught the attention of other universities and started spreading all through Italy.