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2016-03-06T21:43:23+05:30

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Ans 1. There are millions of organisms on this earth. So, it is harder to study them one by one. Therefore, we look for similarities among them and classify them into different classes to study these different classes as a whole. Classification makes our study easier.
  so,therefore classification serves the following advantages:
1. it determines the method of organising the diversity of life on earth.
2. it helps in understanding millions of life form in details.
3. it also help in predicting the line of evolution.
ans 2.Developing a hierarchy of Classification, we choose the fundamental characteristic among several other characteristics. For example, plants differ from animals in the absence of locomotion, chloroplasts, cell wall, etc. But, only locomotion is considered as the basic or fundamental feature that is used to distinguish between plants and animals. This is because the absence of locomotion in plants gave rise to many structural changes such as the presence of a cell wall for protection, and the presence of chloroplast for photosynthesis (as they cannot move around in search of food like animals). Thus, all these features are a result of locomotion. Therefore, locomotion is considered to be a fundamental characteristic. By choosing the basic or fundamental characteristic, we can make broad divisions in living organisms as the next level of characteristic is dependent on these. This goes on to form a hierarchy of characteristics.
ans3. R. H 
Whittaker proposed a five kingdom classification of living organisms on the basis of Linnaeus’ system of classification. The five kingdoms proposed by Whittaker are Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

The basis for grouping organisms into five kingdoms is as follows:

(i) On the basis of the presence or absence of membrane-bound organelles, all living organisms are divided into two broad categories of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. This division lead to the formation of kingdom Monera, which includes all prokaryotes.

(ii) Then, eukaryotes are divided as unicellular and multicellular, on the basis of cellularity. Unicellular eukaryotes form kingdom Protista, and multicellular eukaryotes form kingdom Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

(iii) Animals are then separated on the basis of the absence of a cell wall.

(iv) Since fungi and plants both contain a cell wall, they are separated into different kingdoms on the basis of their modes of nutrition. Fungi have saprophytic mode of nutrition, whereas plants have autotrophic mode of nutrition. This results in the formation of the five kingdoms.


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