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bengal is more densely populated than punjab because of its climate and surroundings. It has all good factors like fertility, economy etc.
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Both Punjab and Bengal are divided into two parts each between India and neighboring nations. So one must look in to the population picture from that angle also. Both stand at the extreme ends of one of the densest population pockets of the world. But Punjab is climatically cooler than Bengal. There is a combination of river plain and coastal plain aspects in Bengal. Immigration from Bangladesh is practically uncontrollable. This is a significant factor. The enclaves across the border is the real trouble shooter. To the contrary Punjab border is relatively well guarded. It is a fact in human geography that Bengal is the most thickly populated area in the world. Historically the British empire in Indian sub continent started stretching out from its first capital Calcutta, and any capital will draw population to it. That was trigger factor to start with.