- foundational challenge : establishment of democracy by bringing down non democratic rule from keeping away the military  and setting up and setting up sovereign state
- challenge  of expansion : by giving greater power to local govt. ,extending  principle to women and minorities 
ex. India
 -deepening of democracy  Strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy.

This should happen in such a way that the people can realise their expectations of democracy.

FOUNDATIONAL CHALLENGE of making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government . this involves bringing down the existing non democratic regime

CHALLENGE OF EXPANTION this involve applaying the basic principal of democractic government across all regions,different social groups and various institutions

DEEPENING OF DEMOCRACY  is faced by every democracy in one form or another . this involve strengthening of the institution and practices of democracy