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Binary number system is similar to the decimal number system that we use.

The main difference is that we have only two digits in that:  0 and 1.

The radix (or the base) is 2,  like in decimal system it is 10.

In electronic switching circuits and logic circuits there are logic gates that have two values of voltage levels : high or low.  They are represented by 1 and 0 respectively.  The binary system is direct consequence of the electronic circuits.

Computers use the binary system to convert the decimal numbers and then do the computations.  In fact every thing inside a computer memory is a binary number.  All calculators, digital gadgets use this system only.

Binary equivalents of some decimal numbers are:
0  : 0
1  : 1
2 :   10
4 :   100
10:  1010

2 5 2