Commercial ultra filtration and dialysis membranes have broad pore sized  distributions and over 1,000 times thicker than the molecule they are designed to separate . leading to poor size cut-off properties, filtrate loss within the membranes, and low transport rates. Nanofabricated membranes have great potential in molecular separation applications by offering more precise structural control, yet transport is also limited by micrometre-scale thicknesses. This limitation can be addressed by a new class of ultrathin nanostructured membranes where the membrane is roughly as thick (approximately 10 nm) as the molecules being separated, but membrane fragility and complex fabrication have prevented the use of ultrathin membranes for molecular separations. Here we report the development of an ultrathin porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si) membrane using straightforward silicon fabrication techniques that provide control over average pore sizes from approximately 5 nm to 25 nm. Our pnc-Si membranes can retain proteins while permitting the transport of small molecules at rates an order of magnitude faster than existing materials, separate differently sized proteins under physiological conditions, and separate similarly sized molecules carrying different charges. Despite being only 15 nm thick, pnc-Si membranes that are free-standing over 40,000 microm2 can support a full atmosphere of differential pressure without plastic deformation or fracture. By providing efficient, low-loss macro molecule separations, pnc-Si membranes are expected to enable a variety of new devices, including membrane-based chromatography systems and both analytical and preparative micro fluidic systems that require highly efficient separations.
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