1. Social base zamindars and upper middle classes in towns.
2. Ideological inspiration western liberal thought and European history.
3. Believed in England’s providential mission in India.
4. Believed political connections with Britain to be in India’s social, political and cultural interests.
5. Professed loyalty to the British Crown.
1. Social base educated middle and lower middle classes in towns.
2. Ideological inspiration Indian history, cultural heritage and Hindu traditional symbols.
3. Rejected ‘providential mission theory’ as an illusion.
4. Believed that political connections with Britain would perpetuate British exploitation of India.
5. Believed that the British Crown was unworthy of claiming Indian loyalty.