The Constitution of India is the major law in India. The constitution is the framework for political principles, procedures, powers of government officials, etc. It's also the longest constitution in the world with 448 articles, 22 parts, 12 schedules and 115 amendments.
The constitution was made on 26 November 1949, and was made the center of law in 26 January 1950. India celebrate 26 January as Republic Day.
India had to face many problems afterindependence. In this time, rehabilitating the refugees who migrated from Pakistan, merger of the princely states, maintainance of law and order ate the challenges during the independence time. Sardar Patel successfully achieved the merger of the princely states and provinces with the Union of India. Even the challenge of framing a constitution in order to enable govern the country was also fulfilled.
A Constitution is a set of rules and regulations guiding the administration of a State. The recommendations of the Motilal Nehru Committee and the decisions taken by the meeting of National Congress at Karachi enabled the need for the formation of a Constituent Assembly.
The first meeting of the new constituent Assembly was conducted on 9th of December, 1946. The next meeting conducted in 11th of December, 1946 under the chairmanship of Dr. Rajendra Prasad. Highly respected people such as Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhai Patel, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, Sarojini Naidu attended the meeting.
The Constituent Assembly formed many Committees to examine in detail all the issues relating to the country. Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was the Chairman of one of the most important committees, i.e., the Drafting Committee. The other members of the committee were N.Gopalaswamy Iyengar, Alladi Krishnaswamy etc.
The Constituent Assembly which came into existence on 11th of December 1946, this duration, the constituent assembly had 145 meetings and framed a draft constitution. During these discussions, the various laws proposed by the British Government in 1909, 1919 and 1935, the British Parlimentary System, the American Bill of Rights, the Social Directive Policies of Ireland were studies and some laws of those were written in the Constitution. Finally, the Indian Constitution was approved on 26th of November, 1949 and came into existance on 26th of january, 1950. This day (January 26) is celebrate as 'Republic Day' in India.