I think you terminology is specific to the area you are working in or studying.
The "perc" test discussed above is the standard way to determine if a septic field can be built without an "engineered" field.
However, there are other uses of those terms - many in the area of environmental and civil engineering.
Generally I would think that a percolation pit is any pit that is designed to allow fluid place in the pit to "percolate" into the ground, i.e., drain. A recharge well is typically a well with a water supply that is used to recharge a water supply -- as is a recharge trench (used to direct the water supply to a recharge point).
For instance a recharge well could also mean a well used to recharge an acquifer by allowing water to seep down to the acquifer (and a recharge trench can direct water to a surface water source), etc.
I am sure there may be more specific definitions that you mean depending upon the context of how you are using the terms.